Bunions are bony bumps occurring at the base of your big toe, on the joints. It occurs when some of the bones are dislocated from their original positions. This interrupts the structure of the toes making them look different. The tip of the toe is drawn towards the other smaller toes and pushes its lower part outward. This might cause a swollen toe and make it appear reddish in colour. Wearing any small size shoes may worsen the situation causing more pain and bump. Some medical conditions that lead to bunions are arthritis, a foot deformity. In rare cases, bunions might also appear in the smaller toes, on the joints. This medical condition is known as Bunionettes.


Symptoms of Bunions

The symptoms and signs of Bunions are:

  • A mountain-like bump peeping out from the base of the bigger toe.
  • Swelling, painful red bumps, and soreness around the big and small toe joints.
  • The first and second toes rub against each other to form Corns and Calluses.
  • Pain that appears for some time. No constant pain remains.
  • It causes obstructive movement of big toes.
  • The bulging on the joint of the big toe is a sign of Bunions.
  • Might interrupt the toe structure and make it look not normal.
  • Might be painful when tight shoes are worn.
  • Corns and Calluses will be present.
  • Skin hardening under the foot or toe.
  • The burning sensation may happen. 

Causes of Bunions

Many scientists approved that people inherit this bony structure according to their body type.

  • Having uneven bearing weight on the foot and tendon makes the foot appear uneven.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis is one of its causes.
  • Polio can also cause Bunions because it affects both nerves and muscles.
  • Some Bunions are deformities by birth. If feet do not develop [properly before birth this might increase the cause of Bunions. 

Around two percent of children under eleven years develop this disorder. More than half the population of adults suffering from bunions are commonly known as a bony bump on the joint of your big toe. Adolescent Bunions occur in teenage girls. At younger ages, Bunions cause fewer problems but it usually increases as a person grows bigger. 

Complications of Bunions

Some common complications are:

  • The fluid-filled pads act as a cushion for tendons and muscles. If Bunions appear it causes harm to that pad.
  • Bunions are commonly known as the bony bump on the joint of your big toe Which leads to hammertoe.
  • Bunions also lead to Metatarsalgia, which causes immense pain in the foot.
  • Difficulty to walk normally.
  • Arthritis is severe.

Diagnosis of Bunions

Proper diagnosis is possible through physical examination. X-ray reports will also help to diagnose it in detail. It will help the physician to take further steps and prescribe proper medications. 


A wide toe-box frame around the well-fitted shoes can help to prevent Bunions. Shoes with high-heels and pointy-toes are to be avoided.

People should avoid wearing tight fitted shoes, small size shoes, bad quality shoes, and shoes that usually compress the foot.